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Earthquakes Diploma

16167 2021-10-25

Geoph. 515: Part 1: Elastic Wave Theory
Introduction: Vector and scalar - Stress and strain relation - Delineation of motion.
Principles of Elastic Wave Theory: Fundamentals of elastic theory - Analysis of strain: Translation, Rotation, Deformation - Analysis of stress - Relationship between elasticity and equation of motion - Displacement potentials.
Body Waves: Plane waves - Spherical waves.
Reflection and Refraction of Elastic Waves: Plane waves at horizontal interfaces - Polarization direction of compressional waves - Polarization direction of shear waves - Reflection and refraction coefficients.
Surface Waves: Types of waves - Wave velocities.

Geoph. 515: Part 2: Mechanism of Earthquakes
a. Introduction: Geological aspects - Snell’s law - Huygens’s principle.
b. Main Types of Seismic Waves: Body waves - Surface waves.
c. Earth’s Structure and Earthquake Generation: Classification of earthquakes - Internal structure of the earth.
d. Earthquake Mechanism: Causes of different types of seismological events - Determination of earthquake parameters: Azimuth – Distance - Focal depth - Origin time.
e. Intensity, Magnitude, Energy and Source Parameters of Earthquakes: Earthquake’s intensity - Earthquake’s magnitude - Earthquake’s energy - Source parameters.
f. Seismogram Interpretation: Fault-plane solutions - Stereographic projection - Parameters of fault-plane solution.
g. Earthquakes Prediction: Long term prediction - Short term prediction.

Geoph. 516: Part 1: Instrumentation and Seismic Hazard
a. Instrumentation: Types of seismographs (Horizontal - Vertical - Long and short period of one and three components) - Types of telemetry devices and techniques (Analog and digital - Digitizers - Recording of seismographs - Processing of data from several stations using computers – Accelerometers - Instrumenting structures and buildings (Testing - Choosing the instrument - Choosing the location in the structure).
b. Seismic Hazard: The effect of resonance - The effect of foundation on structures: Rock and soil effect - Soil acceleration of seismic waves - The role of architecture in seismic hazard: Story - Short column - Doors and windows openings - The acceleration and strong ground motion: Relation between duration and acceleration - Case histories - The vulnerability of different structures according to the materials: Stee – Concrete - Masonry buildings – Dams - Bridges.
Geoph. 516: Part 2: Geophysical Site Investigations
Acoustic tomography in shallow geophysical exploration - Delineation of buried bedrock valleys using the optimum offset shallow seismic reflection technique - Identifying intra - Alluvial and bedrock structures shallower than 30 meters using seismic reflection techniques - Seismic hazard estimation at dam sites - Site specific shear wave velocity determinations for geotechnical engineering applications - Shallow SH wave seismic exploration for subway constructions.

Geoph. 517: Part 1: Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics
a. Introduction: Problems - Objectives – Concepts.
b. Classification of The Earth: Core – Mantle – Crust.
c. Sea Floor Spreading: Seismicity of the world - Movement of ocean floor - Heat convection current in the mantle.
d. Classification of continental Margins: Divergence of continental margins - Tectonic formation of divergent margins – Convergence of continental margins - Tectonic formation of convergent margins.
e. Movement of Plates Over the Earth’s Surface: Plate motions and earthquake generation - Earthquakes along - The oceanic ridge - Earthquakes near the trench - Earthquakes within the descending plate - Earthquakes due to the collision of continents.
f. The Relation between the Earthquakes and Plate Tectonic Theory.

Geoph. 517: Part 2: Geological and Hydrogeological Applications
Application of geophysical methods in selecting the site for international airports - Geophysical investigations of sinkholes in lateritic terrains - Quality assessment of hydraulic engineering structures - Detection of destressed rock and potential collapse features above old mine workings by the seismic refraction method - Study of the characteristics of the Quaternary geology and back siltation in Nile Delta - Seismic reflection methods applied to engineering environmental and groundwater problems - Seismic reflection used in the sea environment..

Geoph. 518 Practical Course
Geoph. 519 Social Safeguard Measures.