Bot. 511 Botanical Gardens and Herbaria
(a) Botanical Gardens: History of international gardens - Importance – Styles - Botanic and constructive elements - Principals of landscaping- History of Egyptian botanic gardens - Modern trends in international botanical gardens – Construction of new botanical gardens in Egypt.
(b) Herbaria: History of herbaria - Importance - History of Egyptian herbaria - Methods of preparation of herbaria specimens - Keys used in plant identification.
Bot. 512 Biodiversity and Plant Taxonomy
Taxonomic aspects - Taxonomic criteria - Morphological and anatomical characters - Chemotaxonomy - Origin and types – Vaccines - Variation in the division, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
Bot. 513 Cytological and Experimental Taxonomy
Structural information of plants - Plant taxonomy by means of chemical evidence - Importance of chemicals in classification - Semantides in chemotaxonomy - Proteins and their roles in chemotaxonomy - Plant taxonomy by means of cytological evidence.
Bot. 514 Practical Course