Bot. 611 Plant Physiology (A)
(a) Metabolism (1): Interconversion of nitrogen (Nitrogen cycle - Nitrogen fixation – Denitrification - Nitrate assimilation - Ammonia dissimilation) - Amino acids biosynthesis and regulation - Nitrogen interconversions - Transport during plant development – Terpenoid - Biosynthesis - Physiology - Phenolic compounds - Biosynthesis - Physiology – Alkaloids – Biosynthesis - Physiology – Polyamines – Biosynthesis - Catabolism - Physiology - Plant lectins - Biosynthesis - Physiology - Quaternary ammonium - Tertiary sulfonium compounds - Biosynthesis - Physiology.
(b) Metabolism (2): Integration of metabolic processes in plants - Regulation of enzyme levels and activities - Control mechanisms of some metabolic processes (e.g., Regulation of respiration - Regulation of gene expression, …etc.).
Bot. 612 Plant Physiology (B)
(a) Growth regulators (1): Applied aspects of the different growth regulators - Phytohormones - Stress phenomena (Drought – Salinity - Flooding, etc.). - Action mechanism of the different growth regulations (Auxins - Gibberellins - Cytokinin’s growth inhibitors - Ethylene) - Role of phytohormones in senescence - Abscission - Apical dominance in plants.
(b) Growth regulators (2): Hormone binding - Protein receptors - Regulation of gene expression by: Auxins - Gibberellins- Cytokinin’s- Abscisic acid- Ethylene - Photosynthate partitioning - Regulation by growth hormones.
Bot. 613 Microbiology (A):Mycology, Fungal Plant Diseases, Actinomycetes and Fossil microorganisms
(a) Mycology: Classification of fungi - Structure and ultrastructure of fungi - Spore dispersal in fungi. - Environmental conditions for growth and tolerance of extremes - Prevention and control of fungal growth.
(b) Fungal Plant Diseases: Parasitism - Pathogenicity - Physiology of plant diseases - Structure aspects of infection by biotrophic fungi - Role of toxins in plant diseases - Effect of pathogens on photosynthesis.
(c) Actinomycetes: Morphological and physiological characteristics of Actinomycetes and their role in soil - Resistance against some pathogenic organisms - Recent classification - Structure – Sporulation - Regulation factors - Production of antibiotics and its role in soil.
(d) Fossil microorganisms: A study of selected examples of microorganisms representing different geological ages (Cryptozoic - Phanerozoic) - Comparison of ancient microorganisms with their extant relatives - Study of organ-sedimentary structures resulting from the activity of ancient microorganisms.
Bot. 614 Microbiology (B): Bacterial Diseases, Viruses and Applied Phycology
(a) Bacterial Diseases: The role of bacteria in environment as disease causing organisms of important host plants - Characteristics of pathogenic bacteria - Mechanism of infection and attack - Bacterial diseases of plants - Resistance and control.
(b) Viruses: Historical Review and economic importance - Morphology of the virus (Shape - Size - The structure of virus particle) - Chemical structure of the virus (Virus protein - Virus nucleic acids - Lipids - Carbohydrates – Polyamines - Mineral elements - Virus enzymes - Forms and types of nucleic acid in virus) - Taxonomy of viruses (Rules of viral nomenclature - Rules of virus classification) - Virus infection (Stages of virus infection - Nature of virus infection - Virus replication) - Virus replication within true cell (Extracellular replication of viruses) - Inclusion bodies.
(c) Applied Phycology: The lectures represent studies on the applied utilization of algae and their relationships with other organisms growing with them in different ecological environments.
Bot. 615 Plant Ecology and Ecology of Bryophyta
(a) Plant Ecology: The course intends to study the new approaches in plant ecology including: Ecosystems - Ecological success of species and populations - Plant communities - Gene ecology - Ecological indicators and ecotypes - Ecological adaptations - Halophytes and mangrove vegetation in Egypt – Environmental pollution - Natural resources and their conservation - Production ecology.
(b) Ecology of Bryophyta: Water relations, light and temperature responses. - Mineral nutrition - Responses to pollution - Life strategies of Bryophytes - Environmental factors affecting production of gametangia - Desert bryophytes - Aquatic bryophytes.
Bot. 616 Plant Taxonomy and Cytogenetics
(a) Taxonomy of Flowering Plants (1): The similarities between plants and animals: The protoplasmic similarity and its consequences - Differences in biochemistry – Respiration - Assimilation - Irritability - Taxonomic constitution - Physiological differences (Functional - Formal) - Biological differences - Cytological differences - Monocots and Dicots: Differences- Evolutionary aspects in the flowering plants: Floral evolution - Floral modification - Floral aggregation - Evolution of pollinating mechanisms - Origin of the herbaceous angiosperms - Variation and variation patterns: Continuous and discontinuous variations– Isolation - Aneuploidy and polyploidy - Sources of variation (phenotypic and genotypic).
(b) Taxonomy of Flowering Plants (2): Sources of taxonomic information
Structural information - Chemical information - Chromosomal information - Ecological and phytogeographical information - Evolutionary trends in flowers - Biodiversity (Energy crops – Medicinal plants) and Egyptian protectorate - Plant nomenclature and numerical taxonomy.
(c) Molecular Genetics: Regulation of gene expression in Eukaryotes - Regulatory elements that control gene expression in Eukaryotes - Identification of cis acting elements via electrophoresis.
(d) Genetic Engineering: Cloning vectors - DNA library - Genomic library - Transformation of higher plants via agrobacterium and biolistic gene gun - Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - Site directed mutagenesis.