P 551 Speckle Interferometry and Fiber Optics
(a) Speckle Interferometry: Statistical properties of Laser speckle pattern – Speckle patterns in partially coherent light – Information processing using speckle patterns – Speckle interferometry.
(b) Fiber Optics: Brief history of communication - The electromagnetic Spectrum - Optical fibers - Transmission losses - Characteristics of optical fibers - Fiber fabrication - Optical fiber’s index profile.
P 552 Laser Physics, Hazards and Protection
(a) Laser Physics: Derivation of Plank’s formula – Einstein’s coefficients – Line profile shape – Natural broadening – Doppler broadening – Collision broadening – Voigt profile – Scatting and absorption – Relationship of absorption and gain and pumping energy – Absorption (gain) coefficients – Rate equation – Saturation – Types of Laser: Two level laser and three level laser – Resonance function of Fabry–Perot cavity – Gain factor for a resonant cavity loaded by active and passive media – Types of Fabry-Perot cavity – Ruby Laser – He-Ne Laser – Neodemium YAG Laser – Holography principles.
(b) Laser Hazards and Protection: Protective standards for eye and skin exposure - Evaluation and control of the laser hazard - Biological effects of laser radiation - Associated laser hazards.
P 553 Laser: Communication, Industry & Holography and Its Application
(a) Laser in Communications: Optical fiber waveguides - Losses in fibers - Fiber materials and manufacture - Modulation - Schemes (Analog and digital) - Fiber optical communication systems - Integrated optics photodetectors.
(b) Laser in Industry: Laser characteristics - Materials and components used in laser systems - Industrial lasers - Gas Lasers - Dye Lasers - Solid-state Lasers and semi-conductor Lasers - Industrial Laser applications in metrology – Laser’s fabrication processes in manufacturing electronic components - Pollution detection - Communications and information processing.
(c) Holography and It’s Application: Coherence: Spatial and temporal - Coherent length and coherent time - Fringe visibility - Production of a hologram – Holography - Data processing - Pattern recognition - Holographic interferometry and practical applications - Holographic interferometry of vibrating objects - Computer technology and holography - Computer - generated holograms - Structure of holographic data storage - The memory matrix.
P 554 Practical Course