P 521 Laser and Electron Optics
(a) Laser Physics: Derivation of Plank’s formula – Einstein’s coefficients – Line profile shape – Natural broadening – Doppler broadening – Collision broadening – Voigt profile – Scatting and absorption – Relationship of absorption and gain and pumping energy – Absorption (gain) coefficients – Rate equation – Saturation – Types of laser: Two level laser and three level laser – Resonance function of Fabry – Perot cavity – Gain factor for a resonant cavity loaded by active and passive media – Types of Fabry - Perot cavity – Ruby Laser – He-Ne laser – Neodemium YAG laser – Holography principles.
(b) Electron Optics: Electrons in electrostatic and magnetic fields - Lens theory and lens equations - Resolution - Physical similarity of light and electron lenses - properties of electrostatic lenses - Electromagnetic lenses - Transmission and scanning electron microscopes.
P 522 Atomic and Raman Spectroscopy and Geometrical Optics
(a) Atomic and Raman Spectroscopy: Experimental Raman spectroscopy – Classical theory of the Raman effects and the selection rule for Raman scattering – Quantum theory of the Raman effect – Pure rotational Raman spectra of diatomic and polyatomic molecules – Raman vibrational studies of diatomic molecules – Vibrational Raman spectra of polyatomic molecules – Rotation – Vibration Raman studies – Application of Raman spectroscopy.
(b) Geometrical Optics: Optical systems and Ideal optical images - The laws of geometrical optics - Gaussian optics - Thick lenses - Thin lenses - The theory of the aberration types - Dispersion of the optical materials - Stigmatic Imaging with wide - Angle pencils - Astigmatic pencils of rays - Photometry and aperture - Basic concepts of photometry - Image - Forming instruments - The effects of stops - Determination of the aperture Stop - Expansion of the sine , and first-order theory - Third-order theory of aberrations - Results of third-order theory - Fifth-order spherical aberration - The sine theorem and Abbe’s sine condition - Oculars or eyepieces - Huygens - Ramsden - Achromatized Ramsden eyepieces - Special eyepieces.
P 523 Light Interference and Optics of Thin Films
(a) Light Interference: Two-beam interference - Double slit experiment - Michelson interferometer and its applications - Multiple-beam interference - Fabry-Perot interferometer and its chromatic resolution - Spectroscopy of Faby-Perot interferometer.
(b) Optics of Thin Films: Single, Double and Multi-layer-coatings - Anti-reflection coatings - Interference filters - Cold and hot mirrors.
P 524 Practical Course