egypt Welcome to Ain Shams University

Master of Science in Entomology

2021-10-19

General Courses for all Groups
Ent 611 Population Genetics and Evolution
(a) Population Genetics:
Definitions of technical terms in population genetics.
(b) Evolution: Genetic variation and evolution - The Hardy-Weinberg law - Sex-linked genes and formula - Mutation - Migration - Random genetic drift - Natural selection - Darwinian fitness - The selection coefficient - Effects of natural selection - Selection and mutation - Genetic coadaptation - Quantitative characters - Polygenic inheritance – Heritability - Races and species formation - Altitudinal gradients of gene arrangements.

Ent. 612 Natural Communities of Insects
Introduction and biotic community concept - Types of interaction between different species in a community - Negative interaction: Predation and parasitism - Positive interaction: Mutualism - Interspecific competition - Naming and classification of natural communities: Terrestrial communities - aquatic communities.

Ent. 613 Molecular Biology
Plasmids: Identification and phenotypic characters - Biological significance – Curing -Replication mechanism - Virulence and resistance as plasmid - Dependent characters - Nucleic acids: Viruses - Prokaryotes - Eukaryotes - Characteristics of DNA and RNA - The range of DNA manipulative enzymes: Nucleases - Polymerases - Modifying enzymes - Restriction endonucleases - DNA synthesis and replication: Cell cycle - Initiation and propagation of DNA chain at a growing fork - DNA damage and repair: Environmental DNA damage -Proofreading and correction mechanisms - Synthesis of proteins: The three roles of DNA in protein synthesis - mRNA, tRNA and rRNA - genetic code.

Ent. 614 Insect Biochemistry
The classification and functions of carbohydrates in insect life processes: Nutrition, metabolism, metamorphosis , flight muscles and behavior-Functional role of lipids in insects: Requirements - Digestion and absorption - Transport and utilization - Functional role of proteins: Interstitial proteins - Enzymes - Synthesis and storage of proteins in fat body - Regulation of proteolytic
digestive enzymes - Nucleic acids: Molecular organization of DNA - Biological significance - Interaction between DNA and RNA - Types and role of RNA -Evidences of the role of RNA in protein synthesis - Minerals.

Ent. 615 Pollution of the Environment
Air pollution: Gases - Pollution in closed areas - Methods of measuring and control - Noise: Sources - Effective doses - Effects on hearing - Methods of measuring and control - Audiometry - Radioactive materials: Sources - Biological effects - Pollution of fresh water: Sources - Eutrophication - Methods of control - Treatment of sanitary drainage - Self purification of water surfaces - Oxygen concentration in aquatic areas - Pollution of marine water: Sources - Oil pollution (Sources: Methods of detection - containment and removal of oil spills - Preventive and legislative measures) - Land pollution: Sources - Wastes (rural , urban and industrial) - Forests, pastures and animals: causes of deterioration and protective measures - Soil: Desertification and Erosion: Causes and control measures-Legislations to control air, water and land pollution.

Ent. 616 Biostatistics and Computer Science
Binomial and normal distributions – Tests for means, variances and properties – Wilkinson two sample test – Goodness of fit and test for independence – Analysis of variance – Computer programming language – Excel and power point – Statistical applications in Maple.

I- Taxonomy and Ecology Group
Ent. 621 Morphology, Phylogeny and Classification

(a) Morphology: Principles of insect morphology - Taxonomic characters (morphological) - Kinds and value of taxonomic characters - Measurements and analyses of morphological differences between populations.
(b) Phylogeny: The modern theories of classification (phenetic – eclectic - cladistic) – Ontogeny and phylogeny.
(c) Classification: History and function - The type concept and the population concept in taxonomy - Stages of classification: Alpha, beta and gamma taxonomy - Kinds of taxonomic categories - Types of insect variations - Identification and taxonomic discrimination - Principles and application of zoological nomenclature.

Ent. 622 Population Dynamics
Introduction to population attribute - Population distribution - Population density - Types - Methods of estimation - Sampling techniques - Population regulation - Density dependent factors - Density independent factors - Population growth - Population growth rate - Population growth curves - Life tables - Population natality - Factors affecting reproduction rate - Population mortality - Factors affecting death rate - Age distribution in the population -Biotic potential of the population - Dispersal of the population ( immigration - emigration - migration).

Ent. 623 Molecular Systematics
Molecular systematics: Context and controversies - Sampling design for: Population structure, species boundaries and hybridization and phylogenetic relationships-Molecular techniques: isozyme electrophoresis - Immunological techniques - Molecular cytogenetics - DNA- DNA hybridization - Restriction site analysis - Sequencing of nucleic acids - Data analysis: Intraspecific and interspecific differentiation and phylogeny reconstruction -Applications of molecular systematics: Choosing the appropriate technique - The molecular clock - Speciation and macroevolution: Anagenesis and cladogenesis - The species concept - The process of speciation - Geographic speciation -- Quantum speciation - Genetic differentiation during speciation - Genetic change and phylogeny: DNA hybridization -Amino acid sequence phylogenies - Molecular population genetics of insects: Nuclear DNA sequence variation - Frequency distribution of DNA polymorphism - Levels of nucleotide heterozygosity.

Ent. 624 Insect Behavior
Communication among insects: Locusts and crickets - Ants, bees and wasps - Fire flies - Verbal communication - Communication in other ways ( contact, touch, signals, movements, etc.) - Animal languages and man: Learning - Intelligence - Heredity - Hormones and behaviour - Some fundamental aspects of behaviour: Defense - Parental care and presocial behaviour - Host selection and feeding.

II- Physiology Group
Ent. 631 Enzymology

Introduction – dfghjkl; Classification and nomenclature of enzymes - Structural and functional organization of enzymes - Coenzymes and cofactors - The mechanism of enzymatic action -Specificity of enzymatic action - Kinetics of enzymatic reactions - Estimation of enzymatic activity - Regulation of enzymatic activity - Multiple molecular forms of enzymes -Multienzyme systems - Digestive Enzymes - Hydrolyzing enzymes - Dehydrogenases - Enzymes of tyrosine metabolism - Non-specific hydrolytic enzymes - Miscellaneous enzymes.

Ent. 632 Physiology of the Nerves and Muscles
Irritable tissues and their function including nervous system, muscles and sensory organs. - Electrochemical basis of nerve impulse production, conduction and transmission - Synapses, types and functions - Integrative aspects of the nervous system -. Structure, chemistry and contraction of muscles - Innervation, electrical and mechanical properties of insect muscles-Structure, functions and electrophysiology of chemo- mechano- and photo-receptors - Role of these receptors in insect communication.

Ent. 633 Endocrinology
Definitions - The neurosecretory system (NSC): Structure and general features - Activity of NSC and its regulation - Neurohormone release sites - The metamorphosis hormones: Brain hormone - The corpus allatum (CA) and the corpus allatum hormone (CAH or juvenile hormone and its analogs) - The thoracic gland and the moulting hormone (MH and its analogs) - Effects of hormones on some physiological processes: Diapause - Reproduction - Function of visceral muscles - Colour changes - Behaviour - Rhythmic phenomena - Osmo -regulation and metabolism - Pheromones: Introduction: Pheromones as a means of communication in animal world - Classification of insect pheromones - Secretion and reception of pheromones in insects: Major factors affecting secretion of pheromones - Role of pheromones in insect control -. Insect growth regulators.

Ent. 634 Cell Physiology
Components of the cell: Molecular constituents and cell organelles, their nature and function - Movement of materials through the cell membrane: Models of the membrane structure; passive and facilitated diffusion; active and bulk transport into and out of cells; secretion; exchange of ions and electrical forces across the cell membrane - Conversion of energy and matter in the cell: respiration and the release of energy in cells; enzymes in the organelles - Cell growth: The cell cycle; growth of cells in tissue cultures; the population growth curves of random and synchronous cell cultures - Cell differentiation: Specialization of cells; nucleocytoplasmic interrelations; intercellular interaction; the senescence of cells.

III- Toxicology and Control Group
Ent. 641 Advanced Toxicology

Classification of insecticides - Modes of action of insecticides - Methods of testing chemicals on insects: Pre-test conditions which affect insect reactions to insecticides - Factors affecting insects during exposure to insecticides - Post-exposure conditions and determination of end -Point. toxicity tests against insects: Exposure to treated food medium - Methods of topical application and injection - Feeding and drinking methods - Dipping method- Hazards of insecticides to man and domestic animals - Dynamics of insecticide movement in the animal body - Insecticide residues in man.

Ent. 642 Insect Hormones, Pheromones and Growth Regulators
(a) Hormones: The metamorphosis hormones:
The activation (brain) hormone - The molting hormone and its analogues - The juvenile hormone and its analogues - Methodologies of using insect hormones - Effects of hormones on some physiological processes, e.g., diapause, reproduction, function of visceral muscles, color change, behavior, rhythmic phenomena, osmo- regulation, metabolism, neurohormones and cuticle properties.
(b) Pheromones: introduction: Pheromones as a means of communication in animal world - Classification of insect pheromones - Secretion and reception of pheromones in insects: Major factors affecting secretion of pheromones -Role of pheromones in insect control.
(c) Insect growth regulators.

Ent. 643 Chemistry of Pesticides and Resistance
(a) Chemistry of Pesticides:
Classification of pesticides - Chemistry of synthetic pyrethroids - Relation between chemical structure and toxicity - Metabolism of pesticides: Oxidation - Reduction – Dehydrohalogenation - Conjugation – Hydrolysis - Formulations of pesticides: Methods of application.
(b) Resistance: Insecticide resistance: Definition of resistance -History – Cross -Resistance - Measurement of resistance - Characteristics of resistance - Rate of development - Specificity - Possibility of loss - Causes of resistance: Morphology - Behavior - Ecology – Genetic - Physiology and biochemistry - Altered site of action - Increased metabolism - Reduced penetration - Examples of insecticides: Chlorinated hydrocarbons - Organophosphates – Carbamates - Determination of insecticide resistance in laboratory - How to overcome resistance.

Ent. 644 Insect Pest Management and New Approaches in Pest Control
(a) Insect Pest management:
Development of insect pest control measures - Side effects of wide spread of chemical insecticides - Principles of insect pest management - Guide lines for insect pest management programs - Control measures applied in IPM programs - Advantages and limitations - Integrated insect pest management of cotton pests.
(b) New Approaches in Pest Management: Introduction: Backgrounds on practice of pest control- General principles: How pest problems arise - The growth of populations - Factors influencing the birth rate - Factors influencing the death rate - The regulation of population density - The damage caused by the pests - Methods of control: Different methods of control - Integrated control - Genetical control.

IV- Vectors of Diseases and Microbiology Group
Ent. 651 Insects of Medical and Veterinary Importance

Introduction and collection management: Preservation and management of reference collections -Insects as Arthropods: Body structure and morpho-taxonomy, and the use of standard keys and expert systems in identification -Sampling techniques: Behavior and relation to trapping - Medical importance of the principal groups of vectors and methods of their control: Diptera - Dictyoptera - Hemiptera - Siphonaptera - Anoplura - Acarina.

Ent. 652 Insect Transmission of Phytopathogen
An overview of plant diseases transmitted by insects and a brief history - Insects as vectors of phytopathogens: Adaptations of insect vectors of phytopathogens - Types of insect transmitted phytopathogens: Non-microbial diseases - Microbial diseases: Bacteria - Fungi – Virus - Protozoa – Nematoda - Essay.