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Biological Techniques IN Zoology Diploma

16055 2021-10-25

Z 511 Vertebrates, Histology and Cell Pathology
(a) Vertebrates: General survey of the mammals of Egypt belonging to the orders: Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Carnivora and Artiodactyla - Taxonomy and distribution of certain endemic forms in Egypt - Taxidermy in ancient Egypt and information related to the process of mummification - Preparing skins and skulls of mammals for research work and for reference collections, and those to be shown in museums in as natural, a posture as possible.
(b) Histology: A survey on the types of animal tissues with special emphasis on the ultrastructure of the cells of epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues - The histological structure of the body systems namely: The integumentary, the digestive, the urinary, the reproductive (male and female) and the nervous systems.
(c) Cell Pathology: Definitions in histopathology - Cell injury and adaptation - Necrosis and apoptosis - Cytoplasmic membranes and diseases - Cell injury due to irradiation, pesticides, heavy metals and viruses - The role of phagocytes and lymphocytes in cases of infection -Cellular changes during embryogenesis, and due to malnutrition, ageing and hypoxia. Genetic mutations - The impact of free radicals.

Z 512 Physiology of Body Fluids
(a) Endocrinology: Chemical structure of hormones - Mechanism of hormone action - Structure and function of various endocrine system including: Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Pancreas and Adrenal glands - Disorders of endocrine function - Endocrine hypertension - Disorders of lipoprotein metabolism - Hyper and hypofunctions of the abovementioned organs.
(b) Enzymology: General nature of enzymes - Nomenclature - Classification - Coenzymes - Intracellular localization of enzymes - Quantitative measurements of enzyme action - Enzyme specificity - Regulation of enzyme activity - Mechanism of action of enzymes - Enzyme kinetics - Intracellular distribution of enzymes - Enzyme inhibitors - Enzymes in clinical diagnosis - Functions of enzymes - Enzyme, hormone relationship.
(c) Hematology: Composition of blood. Principles of hematologic diagnosis - RBCs count - Hb determination - Hct determination - RBCs indices. Abnormal RBCs as indicators for certain diseases.
Types of anemia. White blood cells - Normal physiology - Types of WBCs and function of each type - Differential count - Cytokines. Interferons and interleukins - Platelets - Coagulation and coagulation tests - Fibrinolytic system.
(d) Immunology: Defense mechanism - Nonspecific immunity: Phagocytosis – Fever – Interferon - Specific immunity: Antigens – Haptens – Immunoassays - Lymphocytes - Diversity of antibodies - Active and passive immunity - Cell interactions in immune responses – Lymphokines - Histocompatibility antigen - Tumor immunology – Autoimmunity – Allergy.

Z 513 Parasitology
Types of biological associations with emphasis on parasitism and host-parasite relationships. Types of parasites and types of hosts. Characteristic features of different groups of helminth parasites with emphasis on their morphological adaptations to the parasitic life. The protozoan parasites, structure, infectivity and pathogenecity of some important parasites. Mechanisms involved in parasite transmission. Examples of invertebrate animals working as intermediate hosts or vectors for parasitic diseases. snails, leeches, flies and mosquitoes...etc.

Z 514 Practical Course

ii. Economic Zoology Diploma
Z 515 Animal Resources

Animal resources in the seas - Lakes and rivers such as fish resources and fisheries and methods for their management and development,their obstacles and confrontation measures - Corals distribution and protection - Natural reserves (terrestrial and marine) and their role in protecting rare species and their scientific management.

Z 516 Animal Pests and Parasites
Most important animal pests such as Rodents and their economical and helth impacts – Poisonous animal on land and in seas and methods of protection againest them – Main parasites that infect man and his economic animals, their pathological effects and method for prevention and control.

Z 517 Immunology, Biotechnology and Histopathology
Immunophysiology and its relation with disease causatives as well as human heath – Applications of biotechnology in certain domains of Zoology and their relation with genetic engineering – Histological changes due to exposure to pollutants and parasities and their role as Bioindication of diseases.

Z 518 Practical Study
Practical laboratory and field studies on selected issuses mentioned in the above courses in cooperation with avilable facilities at concerned institutions in the country.