Biochemistry 520 (3 h Per Week)
(a) Carbohydrate Chemistry and Metabolism
Classification and structure of carbohydrates – Different metabolic pathways of carbohydrates and their regulation – Glucose utilization – Control of blood glucose levels.
(B) Lipid Chemistry and Metabolism
Nomenclature, structure of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids – Fatty acid metabolism – Regulation of fatty acid metabolism – Phospholipids – Ketogenesis – Pathways of fat metabolism – Steroid structure and metabolism – Prostaglandin structure and metabolism – Plasma lipoproteins.
Enzyme’s classification and nomenclature – Coenzymes and prosthetic groups - Mechanisms of enzyme action – Enzyme kinetics – Regulation of enzyme activity – Enzyme inhibitors – Enzymes in clinical diagnosis.
Biochemistry 521. (3 h Per Week)
(a) Nucleic acids, Amino acids and Proteins
Nature of genetic information – Confirmation and structure of nucleic acids – Packaging of DNA, DNA replication and their repair – Gene transcription and translation.
Amino acids classification and structure – Peptides and peptide bond – Protein structure and classification – Amino acids and protein metabolism.
(b) Body Fluids
Blood: Types of blood cells – Blood coagulation – Blood chemistry – Plasma proteins.
Urine: Formation and composition, abnormal constituents – Lymph – Cerebrospinal fluid – Milk – Saliva - Synovial fluid – Semen - Amniotic fluid.
(c) Instrumental Analysis
Instruments used for absorption measurements – Fluorometric assays – Gas chromatography – High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) – Radioimmunoassay (RIA) – Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) – Fluorescence immunoassay (FIA) – Biosensors _ Blotting methods - Flow cytometry.
Biochemistry 522. (3 h Per Week)
Mechanism of hormone action – Pituitary and hypothalamic hormones – Thyroid hormones – Hormones that regulate calcium metabolism – Hormones of the adrenal cortex – Hormones of the adrenal medulla – Hormones of the gonads - Hormones of pancreas and gastrointestinal tract.
(b) Immunology and Cancer Biology
The immune system – Types of immunity – Cells of the immune system – Hypersensitivity – Autoimmunity – The immunoglobulin structure and synthesis.
Classification of the human tumors – Etiology of human cancer – Regulation of cellular differentiation – Tumor markers – Cancer genes.
Structure of microorganisms – Classification and identification of microorganisms – Microbial metabolism – Growth and reproduction of microorganisms – Control of microbial growth – Identification of disease producing microorganisms – Detection of antibiotic sensitivity.
Practical Biochemistry 523. (6 h Per Week)
Laboratory tests for blood and urine analysis – Measurement of enzyme activity – Detection of antibodies – Types of immunoelectrophoretic – Measurement of hormone levels – Tumor markers – Hepatitis markers – Cultures for microorganism – Identification of microorganisms and their use in diagnosis of some diseases.