egypt Welcome to Ain Shams University

Master of Science in Physics

2021-10-18

General Courses for all Physics Groups
P 601 Advanced Quantum Mechanics

Review for basic postulates of quantum mechanics: Developing the quantum theory and foundation of quantum mechanics - Matrix formulation of quantum mechanics: Matrix algebra and function of matrices- Hilbert space and Dirac notations - Heisenberg picture and interaction picture- Matrix theory of the harmonic oscillator - Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics: Space and time displacements and matrix elements of displaced states - Angular momentum and unitary groups - Generators of U (n), SU (n) Identical particles and spin: Distinguishability of identical particles and the exclusion principle- Spin matrices and eigen functions - Density operator and density matrix .

P 602 Advanced Electrodynamics
Electromagnetic wave propagation: Wave propagation in lossy dielectrics - Plane waves in lossless dielectrics - Plane wave in free space - Plane waves in good conductors - Power and the poynting vector - Reflection of plane waves at normal incidence - Reflection of a plane wave at oblique incidence - Parallel - Polarization - Perpendicular polarization - Transmission lines: Transmission line parameters - Transmission line equations - Distortion less line - Input impedance - Standing wave ratio and power - Shorted line-open-circuited line - Matched line Waveguides: Rectangular waveguides - Transverse magnetic modes - Transverse electric modes - Wave propagation in the guide - Power transmission and attenuation - Waveguide current and mode excitation - Waveguide resonators .

P 603 Statistical Physics
Introduction: Condensed matter physics - Phase space - State variables - Different kinds of work - Equation of state - Maxwell relationships between state variables (Jacobians) configuration - Permutation states - The case of four identical spins in the presence of a magnetic field - Phase space (momentum space) and Liouville’s theorem - Hilbert space (Slater determinants) and parity configuration - Symmetric/antisymmetric wave functions - Density of states and partition functions - Gaussian distribution (canonical distribution): High temperature physics : Maxwell - Boltzmann distribution - Paramagnetism - Low temperature physics (ferromagnetism) - Heat capacity of solids - The Einstein model and Debye theorem of molar heat capacities - Gauge invariance and nonlocal potentials (grand canonical distribution): Slater determinants – Parity-momentum and energy conservations - Quantum statistics (Fermi - Dirac and Bose – Einstein statistics) - Entropy - Partition function - Equation of state - Interaction between different neighboring molecules.

P 604 Computational Physics
Approximation and interpolation - Newton and Gerogery interpolation - Lagrange interpolation - Least squares fitting - Least squares and orthogonal polynomials - Approximation of derivatives - Functions and roots – Newton and Raphson method -Accelerating the convergence - Numerical integration - Trapizoidal rule - Simpson rule- Romberg integration - Errors and corrections.

P 605 Mathematical Physics
Group theory: Axioms of group theory - Abstract group - Subgroups - Groups of proper rotation - Improper rotation - Symmetry groups - Matrix representation - Reducible and irreducible representation - Group characters - Group theory and Schrodinger equation - Spatial and spin symmetry special functions : Gamma function (Factorial function) - Recurrence relation - Laplace transform - Double factorials - Diagamma - Polygamma - Stirling series - Beta function - Incomplete functions - Fourier Analysis - Fourier series in complex from - Fourier transform - Development of Fourier integrals - Convolution of - functions - Bessel differential equation - Generating functions - Bessel functions - Recurrence relations - Modified Bessel function - Applications in electrodynamics- Legendre functions-Recurrence relations - Spherical harmonics .

Special Courses For:
I- Nuclear Physics Group [611-615]
P 611 Nuclear Spectroscopy

Introduction and historical review - Theory of Beta decay - Weak interactions - Dirac equation - Pauli matrices and some selection rules - Gamma rays’ spectroscopy - Multipolarity of Gamma rays’ radiation - Internal conversion theory - Applications of some nuclear models - Construction of decay schemes.

P 612 Cosmic Rays and Astronomy Physics
Nature of cosmic rays - The origin of cosmic rays - Geomagnetic effects - Cosmic rays at sea Ievel - Extensive air showers - The detection of cosmic ray particles - The future of cosmic ray research - The positron: Particles and antiparticles - Pions, muons and kaons - Hyperons - Classification of the elementary particles - Mesic atoms : The muonium atom - Forces and fields - Short-lived or resonance particles - Conservation laws: Baryon and Lepton conservation - Classification of elementary particles - Particle symmetries - Quarks .

P 613 Theoretical Nuclear Physics
Collective motions - Quadropole moments - Collective coordinates - Surface variables- Collective variable for density viberations - Canonical conjugate momenta and phonon operator for collective variables - Nuclear quadropole surface motion - Angular momenta eigen functions - Nuclear octupole surface motion - Spherical single particle model - Deformed shell model - Unified model.
P 614+615 Nuclear Electronics + Power Reactor Physics
Neutron reactions and nuclear fission: Thermal neutrons - Nuclear chain reaction - Power and research reactors radiation protection: Radiation units - Biological effect of radiation - Natural and man made radiation - External and internal hazard.

II- Electronics Group [621-625]
P 621 Semiconductor Electronics

Transistor audio power amplifier - Performance quantities of power amplifiers - Classification of power amplifiers - Single ended class power amplifier - Stages of practical power amplifier - Push-pull amplifier - Tuned amplifiers - Analysis of parallel tuned circuit - Frequency response of tuned amplifier - Single tuned amplifier - Double tuned amplifier -Radio broadcasting transmission and reception – Modulation - Types of modulation - Analysis of amplitude modulated wave - Side band frequencies in AM wave - Power in AM wave- Limitation of amplitude modulation - Frequency modulation – Demodulation thermal agitation noise – Noise in a semiconductor - Inference and cross talk - Signal to noise ratio - Noise factor.

P 622 Advanced Electronic Circuits
Multilayer neural networks - Multilayer model - The multilayer learning algorithm - Behaviour of multilayer network - Some applications - Electronic data publishing system - Hopfield fully-connected neural networks.

P 623 Computational Systems in Electronics
Computer circuits: Analogue/Digital - Basic digital devices - Microprocessor - Fundamentals -The microprocessor - Programming the microprocessor - Interfacing the microprocessor.

P 624 Microwaves
Introduction to microwave (Frequencies – Devices – Systems - Units of measure) - Electric and magnetic wave equations - Uniform plane waves and reflection - Plane waves propagation in free space and in lossy media - Transmission line equations and solutions - Standing wave and standing wave ratio - Rectangular wave guides - Solution of wave equations TE modes and TM modes) - Power transmission and loss - Excitations of modes in rectangular wave guides - Circular wave guides - Solutions of wave equations in cylindrical coordinates - TE modes and TM modes in circular wave guides - Power transmission in circular wave guides or coaxial line - Power-losses in circular wave guides or coaxial line - Excitation modes in circular wave guides - Characteristics of standard circular wave guides - Rectangular and circular cavity resonator - Q factor of cavity resonator - Microwave hybrid circuits .

P 625 Solid State Electronics
Photovoltaic effect (PV) - Physical aspects of solar cell efficiency - Typical single crystal silicon solar cell - Advances in single crystal silicon solar cell - Solar arrays - Solar array construction - PV support equipement - PV’s future.

III- Solid State Physics Group [631-635]
P 631 Semiconductors

Introduction - Classification of materials according to their structure and conduction - Theory of electrons in non-crystalline materials - Effect of electric field on conduction processes in semiconductors - Phenomenological description of photoconductivity - Methods of measuring steady-state photoconductivity - Technical applications.

P 632 Solid State Theory
The Schrodinger equation for the crystal – Adiabatic, single electron and the tightly bound approximations - Energy states - Brillioun zones - Overlapping of bands - Effective mass – Cyclotron resonance - Localized states - Mean free time, free path and electron distribution function - Boltzmann equation - Electric current and energy flux densities - Conductivity of semiconductors - Galvanomagnetic and Hall effects - Thermoelectric and thermomagnetic phenomena .

P 633 X - Rays and Crystallography
Point group and space group in crystals - Classification of materials scattered by x - ray powder diffraction techniques - Data collection - Data reduction - Analytical function used in powder diffraction line profile analysis - Pattern decomposition and deconvolution of line profile shapes - Determination of unit cell parameters and refinement - Investigation of new materials - Determination of crystallite size and crystallite imperfections - The identification of phase diagram by x-ray diffraction (parametric method) determination of sample purity - Order and disorder in materials - The determination of the percentage disorder in materials - Determination of phase analysis by using the (ICDD) powder diffraction file - Determination of phase change under non ambient condition - The structure analysis of poly-crystalline materials and of noncrystalline materials (amorphous materials) - Electron diffraction techniques - Interpretation of electron diffraction patterns.

P 634 Metal Physics
The electrical resistance of metals and alloys: Electron states - Electrical conduction - Density of states - Sources of resistance - Resistance of alloys - Conduction regimes for non-crystalline materials and alloys - Mechanisms for metal-nonmetal transitions - Wilson transitions - Mott transitions - Anderson model - Percolation mechanism - Mechanical properties of metals: The stress-strain curve - Elastic deformation [characteristic of elastic deformation - Atomic mechanism of elastic deformation - Elastic deformation of an isotropic material] - Inelastic deformation - Viscous deformation - Plastic deformation - Strengthening mechanisms [Work hardening - Grain boundaries - Solution hardening] - Fracture - Mechanical testing [The tensile test - The compression test - The impact test - The fatigue test - Creep test].

P 635 Magnetic and Optical Properties of Solids
Review of basic formulas - Magnetic dipoles - Magnetic vectors - Classification of magnetic materials - Diamagnetic - Paramagnetic - Parasitic- Ferromagnetic - Antiferromagnetic - Ferrimagnetic materials - Magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials - Permeability - Resistivity - Hysteresis - Saturation magnetization - Remanence - Coercivity - Magnetic susceptibility - Hysteresis loss - Causes of hysteresis - Molecular field theory in ferromagnetism - Magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic materials - Molecular field theory in antiferromagnetism - Effect of magnetizing field on antiferromagnetic materials - Magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic materials - The spinel structure of ferrimagnetic materials -Molecular field theory in ferrimagnetism - Domain patterns and configuration - The effect of an external magnetizing field on the siz of the domains - The Barkhausen effect - Causes of Barkhausen effect - The pinning theory of domain walls - Technical applications of Barkhausen effect - Commercial magnetic materials.

IV- Theoretical Physics Group [641-645]
P 641 Quantum Electrodynamics (QED)
Review of quantum mechanics: Canonical formalism for fields - Second quantization - Symmetries and conservation laws - Symmetries in quantum field theories - Scattering operator - Cross section and decay rates - Introducing perturbation theory - Perturbation theory for self-interacting scalar field - Perturbation theory for interacting scalar and fermion fields - Classical electromagnetic theory and gauge invariance - Quantization of electromagnetic fields - Feynman rules for spinor electrodynamics .

P 642 General Relativity Theory
Special relativity (review): Foundation of riemannian geometry - Riemannian space - The covariant derivative and parallel transport - Intrinsic geometry and curvature - The curvature tensor and global parallelism of vectors - The Einstein field equations - Einstein’s equations for weak fields - Newtonian gravitational fields - Spherical solutions for stars (Schwarzschild solution) - The solution of the vacuum field equations in the case of spherical symmetry - The motion of the planets and perihelion precession - The propagation of light in the Schwarzschild field - Experiments - Cosmology – General relativistic cosmological models - Physical cosmology.

P 643 Theoretical Nuclear Physics
Varities of collective motion - Quadropole moment of nuclei - Electromagnetic transitions -Collective coordinates - Surface variables - Collective variable for density viberations - Canonical conjugate momenta and phonon operator for collective variables - The structure of the collective nuclear hamiltonian - Nuclear quadropole surface motion - Construction of angular momentum eigen function - General collective model for low energy modes - Nuclear octupole surface motion - Spherical single particle model - Deformed shell model - Unified model.

P 644 Computation Systems in Theoretical Physics
Interpolation - Lagrange interpolation - Nonlinear least squares - Numerical integrations - Improper integrals - Gaussian integration - Gauss-Laguerre integration - Monte Carlo integration - Ordinary differential equations - Euler methods – Runge- Kutta methods - Second order differential equations - Finite differences - Successive over relaxation (SOR) - Partial differential equations - Fourier transforms - Spectrum analysis - Computational tomography.

P 645 Theoretical Atomic Physics
An atomic system in an electromagnetic field - Vector and scalar potentials - Solution by perturbation - Absorption and emission - Dipole approximation - Einstein’s coefficients - Spectrum of one-electron atoms - Clebsch - Gordan coefficients - Oscillator strength - The photo-electric effect - Fine structure of one electron atoms - Relativistic corrections to Schrodinger’s equation - Klein - Gordan equation - Dirac equation - Solution of Dirac equation - The Pauli equation - Relativistic correction to kinetic energy - Spin-orbit interaction - Relativistic correction to the potential energy - Solution by perturbation - Fine structure splitting - Theoretical solution of an atom in a magnetic field (strong and weak) - Zeeman effect - Electric dipole transitions - Examples - Stark effect - Two - electron atoms - Level scheme.

V- Optics and Spectroscopy Physics Group [651-655]
P 651 Laser Physics

Derivation of Planck’s formula - Einstein’s coefficients - Line profile (shape) - Natural broadening - Doppler broadening (Gauss) - Collision broadenig (Lorentz) - Voigt profile - Scattering and absorption - Relationship of absorption and gain and pumping energy - Absorption (gain) coefficient - Rate equation - Saturation - Types of laser - 2nd Level laser - 3rd Level laser - 4th level laser - Resonance function of Fabry - Perot cavity - Gain factor for a resonant cavity loaded by active and passive media - Types of Fabry - Perot cavity - Ruby laser - He - Ne laser - Neodemium YAG laser - Holography principles .

P 652 Molecular Optics
Atomic spectra - The hydrogem atom two and many electron atoms spin-orbit coupling - LS and JJ coupling - Hydrogen molecule , diatomic molecules - Rotation and vibration of diatomic molecules - Electronic Spectra of diatomic molecules - Franck - Condon principle - Selection rules for electronic transitions - Rotation and vibrational spectra for polyatomic molecules - Electronic spectra for polyatomic molecules .

P 653 Emission and Absorption Spectra
Absorption and emission of light: Cavity modes - Induced and spontaneous emission - Discrete and continuous spectra - Absorption and dispersion [Classical model of the refractive index - Oscillator strength and Einstein coefficients] - Transition probabilities - Linear and non linear absorption - width and profiles of spectral lines: Natural line width - Doppler width - Collision Broadening - Homageneous and inhomogeneous line broadening- Spectral line profiles in liquids and solids - Spectroscopic Instrumentation: Spectrographs and monochromators - Interferometers - Comparison between spectrometers and interferometers spectral resolution power and light-gathering power - Precision and accuracy of wave length measurement detection of Light: Thermal detectors - Photo emissive - Photocells and photomultiplier - photon counting - Photoconductors - Photo diodes - Optical multichannel analyzer .

P 654 Laser Spectroscopy
Dependence of optical properties of a medium upon intensity of radiation - Second and third orders non-linear mediums - The response of a non-linear medium to external factors - Optical harmonics of polarization intensity - Dependent transparency of a medium multiquanta photo electric effect, induced opacity of a medium, phototropic gate: Principle of functioning self - Focusing of light transformation of one light wave into the other incoherent and coherent light - Light transformation processes principle of operation of the parametric light oscillator - Optical biostability - The case of a Fabry-Perot interferometer enclosing a non-linear medium optical phase conjugation - The four wave mixing applications of optics.

P 655 Optics of Thin Films
Formation of thin films - Optics of thin films - Measurement of film thickness and optical constants - Applications of thin films in optics.